Ujung Kulon National Park forms the largest remaining lowland tropical rain forest ecosystem in West Java. Moreover, it is an ideal habitat for the rare animals like the Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus sondaicus). The three main ecosystem types in the Park are marine, coastal and terrestrial.
Ujung Kulon’s natural riches – a huge diversity of plants and animals – were first recognized by Dutch and British researchers and botanists in 1820.
Some 700 species of plant are well protected, and about 57 of them are categorized as endangered species, including bayur (Pterospermum javanicum), bengang (Neesia altissima), salam (Syzygium polyanthum), and various species of orchid.
This Park is home to 35 species of mammal, 5 species of primate, 59 species of reptile, 22 species of amphibian, 240 species of bird, 72 species of insect, 142 species of fish, and 33 species of coral. Besides the Javan rhinoceros, other endangered and protected animals are banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus), Javan deer (Cervus timorensis russa), panther (Panthera pardus), leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis javanensis), Javan leaf monkey (Presbytis comata comata), Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch), and great clam (Tridacna gigas).
This Park is an attractive eco-tourism site, with impressive natural phenomena of fast flowing rivers, waterfalls, white sand beaches, thermal springs, sea gardens, and cultural/historical remains (a statue of Ganesha). Taken together, they create an unforgettable experience for the visitor.
The marine and river waters of the Park are home to many beautiful species of fish, including butterfly fish, angel fish, parrot fish, clown fish, mudskippers, and archer fish. The last two species each have a unique characteristic: the mudskipper can climb up trees, while the archer fish can spit water up to a height of more than two metres in order to catch its prey (insects).
Ujung Kulon National Park, together with the Krakatau Nature Reserve, forms a national asset that has been declared a Natural World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
UNESCO has provided both financial support and technical assistance to enhance the managerial capacity of this Site.
Around the Mt. Honje area there is a community of Sunda Banten people. This people of this community are known for their debus” show using supernatural powers.
The last sanctuary of the Java rhinoceros, the Ujung Kulon National Park is the triangular peninsula situated at the south western-most tip of Java. Ujung Kulon is Indonesia’s first and prime National Park, which was designated as a nature reserve since 1921. This is the largest remaining lowland tropical rainforest ecosystem in West Java. And, together with the awesome Krakatau volcano the 137,000 hectares Park was declared Natural World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Ujung Kulon is the habitat of the rhino (badak) of which only 60 survive today. Seeing one of these animals is very rare since they are shy and are traceable only at night. Here also roam free some endangered animals like leopard cats, gibbons, long-tailed macaques, leaf-monkeys, crocodiles, muntjaks, mousedeer and herds of grazing wild oxen. In the Park’s surrounding seas are found the great clam, clown fish, angel fish, parrot fish, mudskippers which can climb trees, and archer fish, which spit water up to a height of more than two meters to catch insects.
The Ujung Kulon Park is also rich in plant life. It has 700 species of plants with some 57 categorized as endangered species, including various species of orchids.
Visitors to the Park may enjoy fast flowing rivers, waterfalls, white sandy beaches, thermal springs, and beautiful sea gardens
Best site to observe animals is at Handeuleum Island. From here one can further explore rivers and mangrove forests. While Peucang Island is ideal for snorkeling, diving and fishing with its clear blue water, white beaches and coral reefs.
Interesting locations and attractions:
Tamanjaya and Cibiuk: the main entrance gate, with a guesthouse and a wharf. Cibiuk is a short distance from Tamanjaya. From here, it takes about 30 minutes on foot (a distance of about 2 km) to reach thermal springs.
Kalejetan Beach: a good point to watch the pounding waves of the Southern Ocean, observe banteng and spot various plants. The beach is located about 11 km away (3 hours on foot) from Tamanjaya.
Karangranjang Beach: wave formations and a beautiful white sand beach, turtle hatching sites, and opportunities to observe animals such as iguana, deer, pigs, etc. It is located about 5 km west of Kalejetan Beach.
Cibandawoh: clean, white, sloping beaches, and a good observation point for deer, pigs, etc. It is about 6 km west of Karangranjang.
Peucang Island: white sand beaches, coral reefs, attractive crystal clear blue sea water for swimming, diving, fishing, snorkelling, and plant and animal observation.
Karang Copong, Citerjun, Cidaon, Ciujungkulon, Cibunar, Tanjung Layar and Ciramea: forest and river exploration, animals roaming through pasture, waterfalls and turtle hatching sites.
Handeuleum Island, Cigenter, Cihandeuleum: animal observation (banteng, pigs, deer, various species of bird, and tracking the footprints of the Javan rhino), exploring rivers and mangrove forest.
Panaitan Island, Mt. Raksa and Mt. Honje: diving, surfing, sites of historical/cultural interest.
From Jakarta, you can drive to Serang (Banten Province) via highway, then continue to Labuan, which will take approximately 1.5 hours. Ujung Kulon can be reached by chartered speedboat from Labuan to Pulau Peucang, which takes about 5 hours. Or you can travel for 3.5 hours by car from Labuan to Tamanjaya,where the excursion into the park usually starts.
A number of tour companies in Jakarta organize visits to Krakatau and Ujung Kulon.
Best time to visit the Ujung Kulon Park is between April through September. To enter the Park a permit is required obtainable at the Forestry and Nature Protection office in Labuan.
Temperature: 25°- 30° C
Rainfall: 3,200 mm/year (on average)
Altitude: 0 – 608 m asl.
Geographical location: 102°02′ – 105°37′ E; 6°30′ – 6°52′ S
For information and Permit contact the Office at
Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan no. 51,
Labuan Pandeglang 42264
Tel.: 82-253-801731; Fax: 61-253-804651
Source: The Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy Republic of Indonesia, and The Ministry of Forestry Republic of Indonesia