Gunung Halimun Salak National Park


  • In West Java Province: Bogor Regency and  Sukabumi Regency
  • In  Banten Province: Lebak Regency

Gunung Halimun National Park represents the ecosystem types of lowland rain forest, sub-montane forest, and montane forest. Most of the forest areas of this Park are situated in mountainous terrain with several rivers and waterfalls. The area protects the hydrological function of the regencies of Bogor, Lebak, and Sukabumi.

Among the plants that dominate the forest areas of the Park are rasamala (Altingia excelsa), jamuju (Dacrycarpus imbricatus), and puspa (Schima wallichii). About 75 orchid species grow in the park and several of them are categorized as endangered species, including Bulbophylum binnendykii, B. angustifolium, Cymbidium ensifolium, and Dendrobium macrophyllum.

This Park forms a habitat for several endangered animals like lesser Malay mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus javanicus), Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch), Javan leaf monkey (Presbytis comata comata), ebony leaf monkey (Trachypithecus auratus auratus), barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak), panther (Panthera pardus), and Asian wild dog (Cuon alpinus javanicus).

There are about 204 species of bird, of which 90 are permanent and 35 are endemic to Java, such as the Javan hawk eagle (Spizaetus bartelsi). Two species of bird, the spotted crocias (Crocias albonotatus) and the red-fronted laughing thrush (Garrulax rufifrons), are threatened with extinction. The Javan hawk eagle, which is identical to Indonesia’s national symbol, the Garuda, can be quite easily spotted in the Park.With its wet climate, this Park is the source for several year-round rivers, and it boasts eight beautiful waterfalls which have great potential as tourist or recreation attractions.

The communities living around the Park form a traditional “Kasepuhan” society (in which the elders must be respected by the village people). They have preserved their unique way of life, utilizing the surrounding forest with great wisdom and care.

With its rich variety of attractions, this Park is an ideal site for both recreation and ecotourism. The silence of the deep forest, broken only by the whoops and cries of birds and animals, offers a magnificent backdrop from which to observe wildlife at close quarters.

This Park is equipped with a canopy trail – a walkway suspended between trees – which offers visitors a glimpse of the activities of birds and other wildlife living in the forest canopy.

Colourful wildlife, thundering waterfalls and pristine  rivers guarantee an unforgettable experience, particularly for visitors from big cities.

Established in 1992, Gunung Halimun Salak National Park (GHSNP) is the largest remaining primary lowland forest in Java, home to 23 mammal species, at least two of which are endemic and endangered (the Javan gibbon and the grizzled langur).

The roughly 113,000 hectares found within its boundaries also cover a wide range of plant and animal species. The park also supports more than 200 bird species, of which 18 are endemic, and over 500 plant species. Indigenous Kasepuhan and other Sundanese communities live in and around the park and depend heavily on its natural resources.

The park protects an important watershed for Java. However, small-holder and plantation agriculture, infrastructure development, small-scale gold mining, and unsustainable fuel wood and non-timber forest product harvesting threaten GHSNP’s resources.

Visitors trek here to observe rare primates, birds, or other forest attractions, and to relax in the tranquil setting of towering waterfalls.

Interesting locations and attractions:

Cimantaja, Piit, Cipamulaan, Cihanyawar, and Citangkolo Waterfalls: forest exploration, plant and animal observation.
Citarik River: rafting.
Cikaniki and Citalahab: camping, canopy trail, and plant and animal observation.
Cibedug Temple: this small temple, dating from the megalithic era, is situated 8 km from the village of Citorek.
Mt. Halimun (” 1,929 m asl.), and Mt. Sangga-buana (” 1,919 m asl.): exploration and mountain climbing.

The Nirmala tea plantation, located at the main Cipeuteuy entrance, is an additional attraction.

Cultural attractions outside the Park include the Seren Tahun ceremony in July. The ceremony is held at Kesepuhan Banten Kidul and is enlivened with a show of folk arts, from rarely-seen debus performances to angklung and other typically Sundanese arts.


  • From Jakarta go to Bogor, then from Bogor/Sukabumi to Parungkuda-Kabandungan, about 1.5 hours by car (50 km),
  • From Bogor to Cisangku, about 2.5 hours by car (50 km). Then From Rangkasbitung to Bayah-Ciparay, about 6 hours by car (186 km).


Best time of year to visit: June to August

Temperature: 30° C (on average)
Rainfall: 4,000 – 6,000 mm/year
Altitude: 500 – 1,929 m asl.
Geographical location: 106°21′ – 106°38′ E; 6°37′ – 6°51′ S

Source: The Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy Republic of Indonesia, and The Ministry of Forestry Republic of Indonesia

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